英 [fɜːm] 美[fɝm]
  • adj. 坚定的;牢固的;严格的;结实的
  • vt. 使坚定;使牢固
  • vi. 变坚实;变稳固
  • adv. 稳固地
  • n. 公司;商号



复数: firms;第三人称单数: firms;过去式: firmed;过去分词: firmed;现在分词: firming;


firm 坚固的,商行,公司

来自PIE*dher, 支撑,握住,坚硬,词源同dharma,throne. 后用来指公司,商行。


firm: [14] Firm comes ultimately from Latin firmus ‘stable, strong, immovable’. In its adjectival use, the English word’s semantic line of descent from its Latin original is perfectly clear, but the noun presents a very different story. From firmus was derived the verb firmāre ‘make firm, fix’, which in post-classical times came to mean ‘confirm’.

It passed into Italian as firmare, which was used in the sense ‘confirm by one’s signature’, hence simply ‘sign’. It formed the basis of a noun firma ‘signature’, and by extension the ‘name under which a business is carried on’, and finally the ‘business’ itself. English took the noun over with the latter two meanings in the 18th century. Other English words that trace their ancestry back to Latin firmus are firmament [13], from Latin firmāmentum (this originally meant simply ‘strengthening, support’, and acquired the sense ‘sky’ in post-classical times as a literal Biblical translation of Greek steréōma ‘heavenly vault’, a derivative of stereós ‘firm’, which in turn was a literal translation of Hebrew rāqī a ‘heavenly vault’, also derived from a word meaning ‘firm’); furl [16], originally a blend formed in Old French from ferm ‘firm’ and lier ‘tie’ (a relative of English liable); and farm, whose semantic history is quite similar to that of the noun firm.

=> farm, firmament, furl
firm (adj.)
late 14c., ferm, "strong, steady" (of things), "permanent, enduring" (of agreements), "steadfast, steady" (of persons), "sound, well-founded" (of arguments), from Old French ferm "strong, vigorous; healthy, sound; steadfast, loyal, faithful" (12c.), from Latin firmus "strong, steadfast, enduring, stable," figuratively "constant, steadfast, trusty, faithful," from PIE root *dher- (2) "to hold, support" (cognates: Sanskrit dharmah "custom, law," Greek thronos "seat," Lithuanian dirzmas "strong," Welsh dir "hard," Breton dir "steel"). The spelling return to -i- in late 1500s was modeled on Latin. Related: Firmly; firmness.
firm (n.)
"business house," 1744, according to Barnhart from German Firma "a business, name of a business," originally "signature," from Italian firma "signature," from firmare "to sign," from Latin firmare "make firm, affirm," in Late Latin, "confirm (by signature)," from firmus "firm, stable" (see firm (adj.)).
firm (v.)
c. 1300, fermen "make firm, establish," from Old French fermer "consolidate; fasten, secure; build, set up; fortify" (12c.) or directly from Latin firmare "make firm; affirm; strengthen, fortify, sustain; establish, prove, declare," from firmus "strong, steadfast, stable" (see firm (adj.)). Intransitive use, "become firm" is from 1879; with up (adv.) from 1956. Related: Firmed; firming.


1. Choose a soft, medium or firm mattress to suit their individual needs.


2. An oil executive swindled £50,000 out of his firm.


3. "But Peter, it's not that simple," Goldstone countered in a firm voice.


4. Why should a successful company allow another firm to pick its brains?


5. The council is standing firm against the barrage of protest.